What is a fire pump and how does it work?


A fire pump is a device used to provide the water pressure necessary to power a fire sprinkler system. Fire pumps are usually powered by electricity, diesel or steam and may be stationary or portable. Fire pumps may be part of a fire protection system's pre-engineered solution or may be a component of a custom-designed system. A fire pump set usually consists of the pump, driver, controller, jockey pump, and accessories. 
electric fire pump
Fire pumps are powered either by an electric motor or diesel engine. The purpose of the fire pump is to create the required pressure and flow to supply hoses and foam systems with water for fighting fires.

When an electric motor powers a fire pump, it first receives electrical power from an on-site generator or utility grid. The electricity then runs through the motor's winding coils to create magnetic fields, which gently push against each other causing the rotor (the rotating part of the motor) to turn. This turning motion is known as rotation and it causes pistons inside the pump housing (the non-moving part) to move up and down in smooth strokes, creating suction at one end and releasing pressurized water from another end. 

When diesel engine powers a fire pump, fuel and air are drawn into cylinders where they mix with spark created by heat produced by compression and ignites combustion. This combustion process forces pistons downward inside cylinders creating mechanical energy which is then transferred through crankshaft to drive shafts that activate internal valves found in pumps housing allowing pressurized fluid to discharge while suctioning fluid simultaneously at other end of pump housing. 

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